Application of TQM in the Healthcare sector
Many researchers studied the implementation of Total quality management in Education field, (Sabet HS (2012), Altahayneh Z. (2014), Psomas and Antony (2017), Rodriguez et al. (2018), Sciarelli et al. (2020), Venkatraman S. (2007), Williams G. (1993)). Sabet HS (2012) studied the implementation of TQM in universities. The authors conducted a questionnaire on a sample of 112 lecturers in 5 famous universities in Malaysia. The findings suggest that lecturers are committed to use TQM in their classrooms in a way to achieve quality improvement. The use of total quality management leads to a better understanding of study materials. They also added that commitment and Teamwork are important for a successful implementation of TQM in universities.
Moreover, Altahayneh Z. (2014) conducted a study on sample of 72 faculty members of four colleges in Jordan. The findings revealed that academic rank, years of experience, and education level did not significantly affect the faculty members’ perceptions of TQM implementation. Also, Psomas and Antony (2017) lead a research on a sample of 15 universities in Greece, they conducted a questionnaire to the university staff members. The findings reveal that TQM implementation results in performance improvement, teaching staff and employee satisfaction, and a positive impact on society. Furthermore, Rodriguez et al. (2018) found that people empowerment, continuous quality improvement, leadership commitment and stakeholders satisfaction are the critical success factors for TQM implementation. Specifically, their study is conducted on a sample of 309 official faculty members.
Williams G. (1993) states that TQM principles like continuous improvement, employee participation and satisfaction of students and academic members are applied in education. Total quality management has been applied in the education field and its application has been successful as well. It provides a better education quality. Now the main focus is to preserve or improve the quality of education. In general, the quality of education secures better life conditions for people and society. Total quality management principles are aligned with education objectives, Venkatraman S. (2007).
One important challenge for successful application of TQM in education is engagement of top management and academics or teachers, Sohel-Uz-Zaman and Anjalin (2016). This is due to the informal participation of teachers in the continuous improvement process. The term customer and quality are both hard to define in the field of education, Houston D. (2008). Seymour T. (1991) enumerates reasons for unsuccessful application of TQM in education like resistance to change, lack of experience, and high investment. TQM is more concentrated on non-academic activities. Rosa and Amaral (2007) highlight other reasons for non-successful application of TQM in education like individualism, internal competition, lack of strong leadership.